Sometimes I have trouble remembering which methods go were, in the context of an express app this comment was helpful

What’s the differences between helpers and utils?

/utils is a place where you can place small snippets you can use throughout the application. Small functions to build bigger things with.

/helpers is more of a place where you store code architectural snippets in my view. Things essential for bootstrapping components and developer ergonomics.

  Helper Functions/Classes Utility Functions/Classes
Purpose Provide support or aid to other parts of the program Perform common or generic operations that are not tied to any specific part of the program
Scope Typically used within a specific module or part of the program Can be used throughout the program or in multiple programs
Dependencies Often depend on other parts of the program or external libraries Usually independent of other parts of the program
Examples Form validation functions, data formatting classes String manipulation functions, math libraries